SURROGACY IMPACT ON WOMEN IN INDIA, AGENCY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
India had become one of the most important global surrogacy destination until commercial surrogacy was banned in September 2015. I conducted one study on surrogacy in India in 2009-10 and a follow-up study in February 2019. This study aimed at examining the human and child rights violations in the surrogacy practice and the physical, psychological and emotional impact of surrogacy on 45 surrogate mothers and their family members.
Some of the key findings of this study were that; several illegal, inhuman and unethical surrogacy practices was rampant. Some serious violations of human rights are taking place; women are detained in surrogate homes against their wishes, their body and integrity is violated, illegal sex selective abortions are being performed, none of the surrogate mothers were given a copy of their contract, the manner in which the children have been relinquished is crude and without the consent of the surrogate mothers; eventually all surrogate mothers are compulsorilyalienated from the babies born. Almost all surrogate mothers perceived surrogacy as a form of slavery. This study revealed that women from very poor households have had to repeat surrogacy at least two times to bring the family out of poverty. This was at the cost of their physical and psychological well-being. Health, education and housing was the main reason to do surrogacy in India. The Government of India needs to provide cost-efficient housing, education and health care for the poor, as an utmost priority